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The periodic table

What is here?

The periodic table below is based on the ones used by the different examination boards.

The group numbers 1 to 18 were recommended by IUPAC in 1988. They supersede the older numbering system (groups 1 – 0, or 1 – 8) but the older system is still in common use.

There is a summary at the bottom of the page. It shows the main differences between this table and the ones used by three examination boards.

Mouse (  tap) over an element.

You will see its melting and boiling points, electronic configuration (first 36 elements only), and if it is radioactive or toxic.
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Hydrogen
Melting point: –259.2 °C
Boiling point: –252.9 °C

1s1

Helium
Melting point: –272.2 °C
Boiling point: –268.9 °C

1s2

Lithium
Melting point: 180.5 °C
Boiling point: 1330 °C

1s2 2s1

Beryllium
Melting point: 1287 °C
Boiling point: 2469 °C

1s2 2s2

Boron toxic.gif
Melting point: 2076 °C
Boiling point: 3927 °C

1s2 2s2 2p1

Carbon
Sublimes at 3642 °C
solid → gas

1s2 2s2 2p2

Nitrogen
Melting point: –210 °C
Boiling point: –195.8 °C

1s2 2s2 2p3

Oxygen
Melting point: –218.8 °C
Boiling point: –183 °C

1s2 2s2 2p4

Fluorine toxic.gif
Melting point: –219.7 °C
Boiling point: –188.1 °C

1s2 2s2 2p5

Neon
Melting point: –248.6 °C
Boiling point: –246.1 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6

Sodium
Melting point: 97.8 °C
Boiling point: 882.9 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1

Magnesium
Melting point: 650 °C
Boiling point: 1091 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2

Aluminium
Melting point: 660.3 °C
Boiling point: 2470 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1

Silicon
Melting point: 1414 °C
Boiling point: 3265 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2

Phosphorus
Melting point: 44.2 °C
Boiling point: 280.5 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3

Sulfur
Melting point: 115.2 °C
Boiling point: 444.6 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4

Chlorine
Melting point: –101.5 °C
Boiling point: –34.0 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5

Argon
Melting point: –189.3 °C
Boiling point: –185.9 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6

Potassium
Melting point: 63.5 °C
Boiling point: 759 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1

Calcium
Melting point: 842 °C
Boiling point: 1484 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2

Scandium
Melting point: 1541 °C
Boiling point: 2836 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d1

Titanium
Melting point: 1668 °C
Boiling point: 3287 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d2

Vanadium
Melting point: 1910 °C
Boiling point: 3407 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1 4s2 3d3

Chromium toxic.gif
Melting point: 1907 °C
Boiling point: 2671 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d5

Manganese
Melting point: 1246 °C
Boiling point: 2061 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d5

Iron
Melting point: 1538 °C
Boiling point: 2862 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d6

Cobalt
Melting point: 1495 °C
Boiling point: 2927 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d7

Nickel
Melting point: 1455 °C
Boiling point: 2730 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d8

Copper
Melting point: 1085 °C
Boiling point: 2562 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d10

Zinc
Melting point: 419.5 °C
Boiling point: 907.0 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10

Gallium
Melting point: 29.76 °C
Boiling point: 2400 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1 4s2 3d10 4p1

Germanium
Melting point: 938.3 °C
Boiling point: 2833 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p2

Arsenic toxic.gif
Sublimes at 615 °C
solid → gas

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p3

Selenium toxic.gif
Melting point: 221 °C
Boiling point: 685 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p4

Bromine
Melting point: –7.2 °C
Boiling point: 58.8 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p5

Krypton
Melting point: –157.4 °C
Boiling point: –153.4 °C

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6

Rubidium
Melting point: 39.3 °C
Boiling point: 688 °C

Strontium toxic.gif
Melting point: 777 °C
Boiling point: 1377 °C

Yttrium
Melting point: 1526 °C
Boiling point: 2930 °C

Zirconium
Melting point: 1855 °C
Boiling point: 4377 °C

Niobium
Melting point: 2477 °C
Boiling point: 4744 °C

Molybdenum
Melting point: 2623 °C
Boiling point: 4639 °C

Technetium ☢
Melting point: 2157 °C
Boiling point: 4265 °C

Ruthenium
Melting point: 2334 °C
Boiling point: 4150 °C

Rhodium toxic.gif
Melting point: 1964 °C
Boiling point: 3695 °C

Palladium
Melting point: 1555 °C
Boiling point: 2963 °C

Silver
Melting point: 961.8 °C
Boiling point: 2162 °C

Cadmium toxic.gif
Melting point: 321 °C
Boiling point: 767 °C

Indium
Melting point: 156.6 °C
Boiling point: 2072 °C

Tin
Melting point: 231.9 °C
Boiling point: 2602 °C

Antimony
Melting point: 630.6 °C
Boiling point: 1635 °C

Tellurium toxic.gif
Melting point: 449.5 °C
Boiling point: 988 °C

Iodine
Melting point: 113.7 °C
Boiling point: 184.3 °C

Xenon
Melting point: –111.7 °C
Boiling point: –108.1 °C

Caesium
Melting point: 28.5 °C
Boiling point: 671 °C

Barium toxic.gif
Melting point: 727 °C
Boiling point: 1845 °C

Lanthanum
Melting point: 920 °C
Boiling point: 3464 °C

Cerium
Melting point: 795 °C
Boiling point: 3443 °C

Praseodymium
Melting point: 935 °C
Boiling point: 3130 °C

Neodymium
Melting point: 1024 °C
Boiling point: 3074 °C

Promethium ☢
Melting point: 1042 °C
Boiling point: 3000 °C

Samarium
Melting point: 1072 °C
Boiling point: 1900 °C

Europium
Melting point: 826 °C
Boiling point: 1529 °C

Gadolinium toxic.gif
Melting point: 1312 °C
Boiling point: 3000 °C

Terbium
Melting point: 1356 °C
Boiling point: 3123 °C

Dysprosium
Melting point: 1407 °C
Boiling point: 2562 °C

Holmium
Melting point: 1461 °C
Boiling point: 2600 °C

Erbium
Melting point: 1529 °C
Boiling point: 2868 °C

Thulium
Melting point: 1545 °C
Boiling point: 2223 °C

Ytterbium
Melting point: 824 °C
Boiling point: 1196 °C

Lutetium
Melting point: 1652 °C
Boiling point: 3402 °C

Hafnium
Melting point: 2233 °C
Boiling point: 4603 °C

Tantalum
Melting point: 3017 °C
Boiling point: 5458 °C

Tungsten
Melting point: 3422 °C
Boiling point: 5930 °C

Rhenium
Melting point: 3186 °C
Boiling point: 5630 °C

Osmium
Melting point: 3033 °C
Boiling point: 5012 °C

Iridium
Melting point: 2446 °C
Boiling point: 4130 °C

Platinum
Melting point: 1768 °C
Boiling point: 3825 °C

Gold
Melting point: 1064 °C
Boiling point: 2970 °C

gold

Mercury toxic.gif
Melting point: –38.8 °C
Boiling point: 356.7 °C

mercury

Thallium toxic.gif
Melting point: 304 °C
Boiling point: 1473 °C

Lead toxic.gif
Melting point: 327.5 °C
Boiling point: 1749 °C

Bismuth
Melting point: 271.5 °C
Boiling point: 1564 °C

Polonium ☢
Melting point: 254 °C
Boiling point: 962 °C

Astatine ☢
Melting point: 302 °C
Boiling point: 337 °C

Radon ☢
Melting point: –71 °C
Boiling point: –61.7 °C

Francium ☢
Melting point: 27 °C
Boiling point: 677 °C

Radium ☢
Melting point: 700 °C
Boiling point: 1737 °C

Actinium ☢
Melting point: 1050 °C
Boiling point: 3200 °C

Thorium ☢
Melting point: 1750 °C
Boiling point: 4788 °C

Protactinium ☢
Melting point: 1568 °C
Boiling point: 4027 °C

Uranium ☢
Melting point: 1132 °C
Boiling point: 4131 °C

Neptunium ☢
Melting point: 639 °C
Boiling point: 4174 °C

Plutonium ☢
Melting point: 639 °C
Boiling point: 3228 °C

Americium ☢
Melting point: 1176 °C
Boiling point: 2607 °C

Curium ☢
Melting point: 1340 °C
Boiling point: 3110 °C

Berkelium ☢
Melting point: 986 °C
Bp (estimated): 2627 °C

Californium ☢
Melting point: 900 °C
Bp (estimated): 1470 °C

Einsteinium ☢
Melting point: 860 °C
Bp (estimated): 996 °C

Fermium ☢
Mp (predicted): 1855 °C
Boiling point: unknown

Mendelevium ☢
Mp (predicted): 827 °C
Boiling point: unknown

Nobelium ☢
Mp (predicted): 827 °C
Boiling point: unknown

Lawrencium ☢
Mp (predicted): 1627 °C
Boiling point: unknown

Rutherfordium ☢
Mp (predicted): 2100 °C
Bp (predicted): 5500 °C

Dubdium ☢
Melting point: unknown
Boiling point: unknown

Seaborgium ☢
Melting point: unknown
Boiling point: unknown

Bohrium ☢
Melting point: unknown
Boiling point: unknown

Hassium ☢
Melting point: unknown
Boiling point: unknown

Meitnerium ☢
Melting point: unknown
Boiling point: unknown

Darmstadtium ☢
Melting point: unknown
Boiling point: unknown

Roentgenium ☢
Melting point: unknown
Boiling point: unknown

Copernicium ☢
Melting point: unknown
Boiling point: unknown

Nihonium ☢
Melting point: unknown
Boiling point: unknown

Flerovium ☢
Melting point: unknown
Boiling point: unknown

Moscovium ☢
Melting point: unknown
Boiling point: unknown

Livermorium ☢
Melting point: unknown
Boiling point: unknown

Tennessine ☢
Melting point: unknown
Boiling point: unknown

Oganesson ☢
Melting point: unknown
Boiling point: unknown

Alkali metals

potassium_reaction

Alkaline earth metals

magnesium_burning

Nitrogen group
(Pnictogens)

nitrogen_group

Oxygen group
(Chalcogens)

oxygen_group

Halogens

halogens

Noble gases

neon_lights

Typical properties:

  • high melting points
  • high boiling points
  • good electrical conductors
  • good thermal conductors
  • shiny when cut
  • strong and malleable

Elements with properties in between those of metals and non-metals.

Typical properties:

  • low melting points
  • low boiling points
  • poor electrical conductors
  • poor thermal conductors
  • dull
  • brittle when solid

Physical state at room temperature:
solid (s), liquid (l) or gas (g).

The weighted mean mass of the atoms of an element, compared to 112th the mass of a 12C atom.

The number of protons in an atomic nucleus.
Also called the proton number.

Summary of main differences

  AQA Edexcel OCR
hydrogen     immediately above Li
atomic numbers     above chemical symbol
lanthanoids and actinoids La and Ac are in the two white boxes La and Ac are in the two white boxes  
elements 112 – 118   not shown Cn, Fl, Lv only

Download this Periodic Table as a pdf file

pt-icon.gif